The MEFV gene and its association with familial Mediterranean fever, severe atopy, and recurrent respiratory tract infections

Main Article Content

M.H. Celiksoy
C. Dogan
B. Erturk
E. Keskin
B.S. Ada

Keywords

Familial Mediterranean fever, PFAPA syndrome, MEFV gene, Atopy, Asthma, Allergic rhinitis

Abstract

Background: Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most common auto-inflammatory disease and is characterized by self-limiting episodes of fever and polyserositis. The aim of this study was to determine the atopic clinical findings associated with the MEFV gene.


Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted of pediatric patients who had received a diagnosis of familial Mediterranean fever between August 2015 and November 2018.


Results: A total of 454 patients with familial Mediterranean fever were evaluated. The median age of diagnosis was 60 months (min-max: 6---228) and the percentage of patients who were male was 57.5%. A MEFV gene mutation was determined in 310 (68.3%) children. The most frequent genetic mutation was a R202Q heterozygote mutation, which was found in 95 patients (20.9%). When compared with MEFV-negative patients, elevation of serum amyloid A and fibrinogen levels during an episode of FMF was found to occur more frequently in MEFV-positive patients (p = 0.019 and 0.027, respectively). Male gender, cigarette exposure, and a younger diagnosis age were seen more frequently in patients who had episodes with fever (p = 0.039, 0.022, and 0.001, respectively). Chronic cough with sputum and persistent purulent rhinitis were more frequent in the group which did not experience fever episodes (p = 0.003 and 0.002, respectively).


Conclusions: While being a periodic fever syndrome, familial Mediterranean fever also presents as a multisystemic disease with heterogeneous clinical symptoms. Severe atopic diseases and recurrent respiratory tract infections are characteristic features of this disease.

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