Anti-inflammatory effect of N-(trifluoromethylphenyl)- 2-cyano-3-hydroxy-crotonic acid amide and gluconic acid on allergic rhinitis and asthma controlling

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Xing Liu
Entezar Mehrabi Nasab
Seyyed Shamsadin Athari


Allergy, Cytokine, Histamine, Immunoglobulin, Inflammation


Allergic rhinitis and asthma are the main airway diseases with a higher prevalence. Eosinophilic inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness, mucus hypersecretion, and reversible airflow obstruction are immunopathogenesis symptoms of rhinitis and asthma. Crotonic acid has bio-activity on the inflammation, and gluconic acid as chelator may protect crotonic acid activity in airway and together may control allergic rhinitis and asthma.

Allergic rhinitis and asthma mice models were treated with crotonic and gluconic acids. The total IgE, histamine, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 levels were measured. In lung tissues, goblet cell hyperplasia, mucus hypersecretion, and inflammation were evaluated.

The level of IL-5, goblet cell hyperplasia, and perivascular and peribronchial inflammation were controlled by crotonic acid in asthma and allergic rhinitis groups. But, total IgE, hista-mine, IL-4, and IL-13 levels, and mucus hypersecretion had no significant changes between treated and nontreated asthma and rhinitis groups.

Crotonic acid can control eosinophilic inflammation via harnessing IL-5 and preventing goblet cell hyperplasia. When used with gluconic acid, it had a strong effect on the control of allergic rhinitis and asthma immunopathologies.

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