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Iron Deficiency Anemia, Children, Monocyte subsets, Flow cytometry
Background Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is the most prevalent micronutrient deficiency in preschool children in developing countries including India. IDA is associated with immune perturbation, which is reflected in greater frequency of infections in these children. Recent research has shown three distinct monocyte subsets with distinct functions linked to infectious, inflammatory, and autoimmune diseases. These subsets have not been studied in children with IDA.
Objective The aim of the study was to assess the percentage of monocyte population and the three subset populations in children with IDA and to compare the data with age-matched healthy controls.
Methods Venous blood samples (5 mL) from 40 IDA children and 20 controls were collected after taking informed consent. Monocyte subpopulations were compared across the two groups. The outcome variables were calculated using Students Independent t-test or Mann–Whitney U test. P-value of <0.05 was taken as significant.
Results No significant difference was found in the absolute numbers as well as percentages of total monocytes between the control and case (study) group. Children in the IDA group showed a significant (p = 0.03) decrease in the nonclassical subset population when compared to the control group.
Conclusion This is the first study done on monocyte subsets in iron-deficient children. Decrease in nonclassical monocytes observed may be associated with a pro-inflammatory state and increased risk of inflammatory and auto immune diseases. Follow-up studies are needed to confirm these findings.
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