Atypical Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome in children: Is IgE sensitization an issue longitudinally?

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Athina Papadopoulou
Theano Lagousi
Elpiniki Hatzopoulou
Paraskevi Korovessi
Stavroula Kostaridou
Despina -Zoe Mermiri

Keywords

Atypical Food protein induced enterocolitis syndrome, Food allergy, Immunoglobulin E, Long term outcomes, Asthma

Abstract

Background: Food Protein-Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome (FPIES) is a clinically well-characterised, non-Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated food allergy syndrome, yet its rare atypical presen-tation remains poorly understood.
Objective: Aim of this study was to present the 10-year experience of a referral centre high-lighting the atypical FPIES cases and their long-term outcome.
Methods: FPIES cases were prospectively evaluated longitudinally in respect of food outgrowth and developing other allergic diseases with or without concomitant IgE sensitisation.
Results: One hundred subjects out of a total of 14,188 referrals (0.7%) were identified. At pre-sentation, 15 patients were found sensitised to the offending food. Fish was the most frequent eliciting food, followed by cow’s milk and egg. Tolerance acquisition was earlier for cow’s milk, followed by egg and fish, while found not to be protracted in atypical cases. Resolution was not achieved in half of the fish subjects during the 10-year follow-up time. Sensitisation to food was not related to infantile eczema or culprit food, but was related to sensitisation to aeroallergens. In the long-term evaluation, persistence of the FPIES or aeroallergen sensitisation was significantly associated with an increased hazard risk of developing early asthma symptoms. Conclusion: Sensitisation to food was related neither to eczema or culprit food nor to tolerance acquisition but rather to the development of allergic asthma through aeroallergen sen-sitisation. In addition to an IgE profile at an early age, FPIES persistence may also trigger mechanisms switching FPIES cases to a T-helper 2 cells immune response later in life, predis-posing to atopic respiratory symptoms; albeit further research is required.

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