Therapeutic potentials of the caffeine in polycystic ovary syndrome in a rat model: Via modulation of proinflammatory cytokines and antioxidant activity

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Amir Raoofi
Mohammad Jafar Rezaie
Ali Delbari
Seyed Amir-Hossein Ghoreishi
Pegah Hadi Sichani
Shahram Maleki
Davood Nasiry
Maedeh Akhlaghi
Vahid Ebrahimi
Amin Mousavi Khaneghah


Polycystic ovary syndrome, Ovarian structure, caffeine, apoptosis, inflammation, rat


Recent studies have shown that polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects about 6% of women worldwide. It is associated with reproductive and metabolic dysfunction. Caffeine is naturally found in tea, cocoa, and coffee. It has been shown that caffeine can change hormonal profiles, stimulate ovulation, and enhance fertility. Therefore, in this study, the effects of caffeine on rats with PCOS were investigated. For this purpose, 40 female rats were divided into five groups: (1) control group (without any intervention), (2) sham group (administration of olive oil as a caffeine solvent), (3) PCOS group (injection of 2 mg of estradiol valerate for each rat), (4) caffeine group (administration of 37.5 mg/kg caffeine for each rat), and (5) PCOS + caffeine group. After 21 days of treatment, the ovaries of rats were removed and prepared for further evaluations, including hematoxylin and eosin staining, TUNEL assay, real-time PCR, and biochemical analysis. Administration of caffeine in PCOS mice considerably reduced both the volume of the ovary (P < 0.05) and follicular clusters (P < 0.01). However, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were dramatically active in the PCOS + caffeine group compared to others (P < 0.05). Besides, caffeine treatment in PCOS mice led to Bax reduction and increased Bcl-2 expression. On the other hand, the expression of IL-6 and TNF-α in PCOS + caffeine group was high compared to other groups. We found that caffeine can reduce apoptosis and inflammation in PCOS ovaries and enhance the unpleasant symptoms of PCOS.

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