Prevalence and time trends of symptoms of allergic rhinitis and rhinoconjunctivitis in Spanish children: Global Asthma Network (GAN) study

Main Article Content

Alberto Bercedo-Sanz
Antonela Martínez-Torres
Angel López-Silvarrey Varela
Francisco Javier Pellegrini Belinchón
Ines Aguinaga-Ontoso
Carlos González Díaz
Luis García-Marcos
Grupo GAN Spain

Keywords

Rhinitis, Rhinoconjunctivitis, Adolescent, Schoolchild, Prevalence, Cross-sectional Studies, Global Asthma Network

Abstract

Introduction: The time trends of the prevalence of rhinitis, rhinoconjunctivitis and nasal allergy previously described in the ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood) in 2002 are unknown; or if the geographical or age differences in Spain persist.


Objective: To describe the prevalence of rhinitis, rhinoconjunctivitis and nasal allergy in different Spanish geographical areas and compare them with those of the ISAAC.


Methods: Cross-sectional study of the prevalence of rhinitis, rhinoconjunctivitis and nasal allergy, carried out in 2016-2019 on 19943 adolescents aged 13-14 years and 17215 schoolchildren aged 6-7 years from six Spanish areas (Cartagena, Bilbao, Cantabria, La Coruña, Pamplona, and Salamanca), through a questionnaire based on the Global Asthma Network (GAN) protocol.


Results: The prevalences of recent rhinitis and rhinoconjunctivitis (last 12 months), and nasal allergy/hay fever were 35.1%, 17.6%, and 14.6% in the adolescents and 20%, 8.5%, and 8.9% in the schoolchildren, respectively, with rhinoconjunctivitis in adolescents varying from 20.9% in Bilbao to 13.4% in Cartagena; and in schoolchildren, from 9.8% in La Coruña to 6.4% in Pamplona. These prevalences of rhinoconjunctivitis and nasal allergy in adolescents were higher than those described in the ISAAC (16.3% and 13%) and similar in schoolchildren to the ISAAC (9% and 9.4%).


Conclusions: There has been a stabilisation of rhinitis, rhinoconjunctivitis and nasal allergy in schoolchildren that slows the previous upward trend of ISAAC; and a slight non-significant increase in rhinoconjunctivitis and nasal allergy in adolescents. The variability found in adolescents would require local research to be better understood.

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