IgE-mediated Anisakis allergy in children

Main Article Content

Matteo Pontone
Mattia Giovannini
Simona Barni
Francesca Mori
Elisabetta Venturini
Luisa Galli
Claudia Valleriani
Leticia De las Vecillas
Cansin Sackesen
Andreas Ludwig Lopata
Betul Buyuktiryaki

Keywords

Allergen, Anisakis Allergy, Basophil Activation Test, Component-resolved Diagnosis, Fish Parasite, Immunoglobulin E, Infection, Management, Oral Food Challenge, Pediatrics, Skin Prick Test

Abstract

Anisakids are nematodes responsible for different clinical patterns in humans. The well-known human-infecting Anisakis species include members of the Anisakis simplex (AS) complex. Humans usually contract anisakiasis through ingestion of raw or undercooked seafood containing Anisakis larvae. Once Anisakis has been ingested, patients may develop disease driven directly by Anisakis larvae and/or by allergic reaction due to this nematode. The capability of inducing allergic reactions depends on the expression of specific antigens by nematodes and host factors. This study aims to resume actual knowledge about AS and Anisakiasis with regard to epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment. Particular attention is paid to Anisakis allergens and their cross-reactivity on available diagnostic methods, and defining a diagnostic pathway for Anisakis allergy. Because only a few data are available in the literature about pediatric population, we focus on this group of patients specifically.

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