A new autoimmune disease: atopic dermatitis in children

Main Article Content

Emanuela Floca
Remus Gaga
Genel Sur
Iulia Lupan
Ionel Armat
Gabriel Samasca
Lucia M. Sur

Keywords

atopic dermatitis, autoimmune disease, clinical signs, immune response, symptoms

Abstract

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is mainly considered an allergy, exacerbated by allergic factors. Is there evidence to suggest the existence of autoimmune components in the pathophysiology of the illness? Studies in the literature that dealt with the occurrence of autoimmunity in children with AD were analyzed. We followed the studies published in PubMed for 10 years, from 2001 to 2021. Clinical signs and symptoms were similar to other autoimmune diseases, having periods of remission and relapses. Other correlations between AD and autoimmune diseases have been described, and patients with AD can also present with a wide range of autoimmune comorbidities. Three major factors contribute to the pathogenesis of AD: damage of the skin barrier, disorders of the immune response, and imbalances of the skin microbiome—all based on genetic changes and influenced by environmental factors. Predominant activation of Th 2 cells, with the increase of Th 1, Th 17, and Th 22 subsets, promotes skin inflammation. All this evidence suggests that AD might be classified as an autoimmune disease, not just as an allergic reaction.

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