Dimethyl itaconate inhibits LPS-induced inflammatory release and apoptosis in alveolar type II epithelial and bronchial epithelial cells by activating pulmonary surfactant proteins A and D

Main Article Content

Yun Shi
Huai-qing Yin

Keywords

dimethyl itaconate, inflammatory release, apoptosis, pulmonary surfactant protein, lung injury

Abstract

Background: Injury to the lung is a common, clinically serious inflammatory disease. However, its pathogenesis remains unclear, and the existing treatments, including cytokine therapy, stem cell therapy, and hormone therapy, are not completely effective in treating this disease. Dimethyl itaconate (DMI) is a surfactant with important anti-inflammatory effects.


Objective: The present study used alveolar type II (AT II) and bronchial epithelial cells as models to determine the role of DMI in lung injury.


Material and Methods: First, the effects of DMI were established on the survival, inflammatory release, and apoptosis in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced AT II and bronchial epithelial cells. The association between DMI and Sirtuin1 (SIRT1) was assessed using molecular docking. Next, by constructing interference plasmids to inhibit surfactant protein (SP)-A and SP-D expressions, the effect of DMI was observed on inflammatory release and apoptosis.


Results: The results revealed that DMI increased the survival rate and expression levels of SP-A, SP-D, and SIRT1, and inhibited inflammatory factors as well as apoptosis in LPS-induced cells. Furthermore, DMI could bind to SIRT1 to regulate SP-A and SP-D expressions. After SP-A and SP-D expressions were inhibited, the inhibitory effect of DMI was reversed on inflammatory release and apoptosis.


Conclusion: The findings of the present study revealed that DMI inhibited LPS-induced inflammatory release and apoptosis in cells by targeting SIRT1 and then activating SP-A and SP-D. This novel insight into the pharmacological mechanism of DMI lays the foundation for its later use for alleviating lung injury.

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