Vitamin D deficiency in children and adolescents with food allergy: Association with number of allergens, sun exposure and nutritional status

Main Article Content

Andressa Perez dos Santos Pereira
Raquel Bicudo Mendonça
Fernando Luiz Affonso Fonseca
Márcia Carvalho Mallozi
Roseli Oselka Saccardo Sarni

Keywords

Children, Vitamin D Deficiency, Nutritional Status, Food Hypersensitivity, D Vitamin

Abstract

Our objective was to describe the serum vitamin D concentrations of children and adolescents with food allergy (FA) and to verify the association between the number of food allergens involved, length of sun exposure, and nutritional status. Through a cross-sectional study, 79 patients with FA, from ages 2 to 15 years, were assessed and followed up in a reference outpatient clinic, in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Clinical and biochemical data were collected for analysis of 25(OH)D, calcium, phosphorus, phosphatase, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). The cut-off point used for vitamin D deficiency was 25(OH)D ≤ 20 ng/mL. Vitamin D deficiency was detected in 45.6% of patients with a median age of 6.9 years (Interquartile range [IQR] 4.7; 10.2). The median serum 25(OH)D concentration was 21.1 ng/mL (IQR 17.8; 26.0). Multivariate linear regression was performed considering serum vitamin D level as a dependent variable. Allergy to multiple foods (inverse) and length of sun exposure (direct), but not nutritional status, were independently associated with serum 25(OH)D levels (P = 0.034 and P = 0.014, respectively). Patients with cow’s milk allergy also showed lower vitamin D concentrations in comparison with other FA (19.1 ng/mL [IQR 16.6; 24.4] vs 22.2 ng/mL [IQR 18.1; 27.1] [P = 0.056]). Vitamin D deficiency affected about half of individuals with FA. Multiple food allergy was associated with lower vitamin D concentrations, reinforcing the importance of monitoring vitamin D status in patients with FA.

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