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wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis, COVID-19, vaccine, safety, allergic reactions
Background: Inactivated vaccines against coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) offer an effective public health intervention to mitigate this devastating pandemic. However, little is known about their safety in patients with wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA).
Methods: We recruited 72 WDEIA patients and 730 healthy matched controls who received an inactivated COVID-19 vaccine. Participants were monitored for 4 weeks after each immunization for adverse reactions and completed questionnaires regarding local and systemic reactions at 7 and 28 days after each vaccination. For those who had received the COVID-19 vaccine prior to enrollment, adverse event data were obtained retrospectively.
Results: Local and systemic adverse events occurred at similar rates in the WDEIA group and the control group. In both groups, injection-site pain and fatigue were the most common local and systemic reactions, respectively. Compared with healthy controls, more allergic events were reported in the WDEIA group (after dose 1, 0.5% vs. 4.2%, p=0.019; after dose 2, 0% vs. 1.4%, p=0.089). Allergic reactions mainly manifested as rash, urticaria, and edema, which were mild and controllable. No serious allergic events were reported.
Conclusions: The adverse event profile of inactivated COVID-19 vaccine did not differ between WDEIA patients and healthy controls. The risk of allergic reactions in patients with WDEIA seems higher, but no anaphylaxis was reported, and the allergic reactions were controllable. Inactivated COVID-19 vaccines appear to be well-tolerated in WDEIA patients, but patients with potential allergy risks should be cautious.
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