Demographic and clinical characterization of pediatric group patients with inborn errors of the immune system in a Colombian tertiary hospital

Main Article Content

Manuela Olaya
Daniela Cleves
Tania Guzmán
Laura Torres-Canchala
Harry Pachajoa
Diego Medina-Valencia
Jaime Patiño
José David Gómez
Paola Pérez

Keywords

Primary immunodeficiency disorders, innate errors of the immune system, antibody deficiency, Tertiary hospital, Colombia

Abstract

Introduction: In recent decades, there has been a growing increase in the diagnosis of patients with inborn errors of the immune system, formerly known as primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDs). Timely diagnosis remains a challenge due to low clinical suspicion and poor education on the subject. It is estimated that between 70% and 90% of these pathologies remain underdiagnosed in our environment.


Objective: The objective of this study is to characterize the demographic and clinical presentation of pediatric group patients with inborn errors of the immune system in a Colombian tertiary hospital.


Methods: Retrospective descriptive study of 306 patients with a diagnosis of innate errors of the immune system who consulted the PID clinic between 2011 and 2018 in a high-complexity institution in Cali, Colombia.


Results: Three-hundred and six patients were included. The median age was 4 years (IQR 2.3–7.7 years), and 59.5% of the patients were male. According to the International Union of Immunological Societies Expert Committee for Primary Immunodeficiency classification for inborn errors of the immune system, the most common group was antibody deficiency in 74.8% (n˂229), especially in the age group between 1 and 5 years. The least frequent in our population was complement deficiency. Of the warning signs stipulated for these pathologies, the most frequent were the (1) need for intravenous antibiotics (32%), (2) difficulty growing (15.7%), (3) four or more episodes of ear infection (10.8%), and (4) abscesses in organs or cutaneous abscesses (12.7%). No patient reported two or more episodes of pneumonia or sinusitis, and only 5.8% of the patients received a bone marrow transplant.


Conclusions: Innate errors of the immune system require an early diagnosis with follow-up from an early age to ensure adequate management and follow-up in order to reduce morbidity and mortality. It is imperative to sensitize the medical population about the existence of these pathologies so that early intervention can be carried out, which improves the quality of life of patients and their families.

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