Correlation analysis of TGF-β1, MMP-9, TIMP-1, IL-1, IL-4, IL-6, IL-17, and TNF-α in refractory chronic rhinosinusitis: A retrospective study

Main Article Content

Wulin Wen
Simin Zhu
Ruixia Ma
Lixin Wang
Xueliang Shen
Yongchun Li
Ningyu Feng
Le Wang
Ming Liu
Lina Xie
Xueqiang Zhang


correlation analysis, interleukin, matrix metalloprotein 9, refractory chronic rhinosinusitis, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1, transforming growth factor-β


Objective: To investigate the potential correlation of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), matrix metalloprotein 9 (MMP-9), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1), Interleukin 1 (IL-1), IL-4, IL-6, IL-17, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in refractory chronic rhinosinusitis.

Methods: A total of 150 participants were retrospectively included in this study from August 2018 to February 2020. The people enrolled were equally allocated into refractory group (patients with refractory chronic rhinosinusitis), chronic group (patients with chronic rhinosinusitis), and control group (normal people). The level of TGF-β1, MMP-9, TIMP-1, IL-1, IL-4, IL-6, IL-17, and TNF-α were recorded. The unconditional multivariate binary logistic regression was used to analyze the factors affecting refractory chronic rhinosinusitis.

Results: The Davos score, T&T olfactometer threshold test, and Lund-Mackay CT scores in refractory group were significantly higher than the chronic group (P<0.05). The level of TGF-β1, MMP-9, TIMP-1, IL-1, IL-4, IL-6, IL-17, and TNF-α in the refractory group were significantly higher than the chronic group and the control group (all P<0.05). Similarly, the level of the above mentioned indexes in the chronic group were significantly higher than the control group (P<0.05). The Davos score, T&T olfactometer threshold test score, Lund-Mackay CT score, and the level of TGF-β1, MMP-9, TIMP-1, IL-1, IL-4, IL-6, IL-17, and TNF-α positively correlated with refractory chronic rhinosinusitis. Moreover, the unconditional multivariate binary logistic regression showed that the influencing factors of refractory chronic rhinosinusitis included TGF-β1, MMP-9, TIMP-1, IL-1, IL-4, IL-6, IL-17, and TNF-α.

Conclusion: The findings of the present study provide evidence for TGF-β1, MMP-9, TIMP-1, IL-4, IL-6, IL-17, and TNF-α as the influencing factors of refractory chronic rhinosinusitis.

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