Aqueous intradermal low-dose house dust mite immunotherapy in tropical settings: a valid cost-effective approach for developing nations?

Main Article Content

Cinthya Rondon
Mario Sánchez-Borges
Eliana Risquez Cupello
Fabiola Fabiano
Arnaldo Capriles Hulett

Keywords

Intradermal, immunotherapy, house dust mites, Blomia tropicalis, allergy immunotherapy, cost-effective, allergic rhinitis, low dose.

Abstract

Introduction: Aqueous allergen injections, an effective and century-old technique, is considered a second-line approach in daily clinical practice. Inconveniences still surround conventional subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) administration, such as a need for frequent injections, prolonged up-dosing schedules, elevated costs, and the unlikely possibility of a systemic reaction. The intradermal immunotherapy route (IDR) might favorably impact many of the aforementioned issues (Table 1). House dust mite (HDM) allergens are the main perennial sensitizers in the tropics, and as such, are solely employed in immunotherapy treatments.


Methods: We carried out a year-long real-life study in 25 perennial allergic rhinitis children, symptomatic on exposure to house dust, employing an intradermal low-dose allergen mix consisting of 50 ng of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus/Dermatophagoides farinae and 120 ng of Blomia tropicalis, under a unique cost-wise protocol. Basal symptoms/signs and face Visual Analog Scale (fVAS) scores were recorded for 2 weeks and later compared with those registered throughout the 1-year treatment. Serum-specific IgG4 and IL-10 levels were employed in the assessment of the immune responses.
Results: Symptoms/signs and fVAS scores were significantly reduced from days 42 and 49, respectively, and remained so until treatment completion. Increases in specific IgG4’s and IL-10 levels reflected significant immune responses. Injections were well tolerated and families reported improved health status (quality of life, QoL).
Conclusions: A unique cost-effective immunotherapy alternative for deprived allergic communities in tropical settings is depicted; further research is needed.

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