Application of the diagnostic criteria for Common Variable Immunodeficiency in resource-limited settings

Main Article Content

Jesús A. Álvarez-Álvarez
Alejandro Gallon Duque
Estefanía Vásquez-Echeverri
Isaura P. Sánchez
Sebastián Gutierrez Hincapié
Rubén D. Gómez-Arias
Julio C. Orrego Arango
José L. Franco
Claudia M. Trujillo-Vargas

Keywords

Common variable immunodeficiency, CVID diagnosis, ESID registry working definitions, inborn errors of immunity, primary immuno-deficiency diseases

Abstract

Introduction: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most prevalent symptomatic humoral deficiency; however, its heterogeneous presentation makes the diagnosis difficult. The present study is aimed to verify the CVID diagnostic criteria as established by the European Society for Immunodeficiencies in 42 CVID patients from our outpatient clinic.


Methods: Information was collected from their medical records and when needed, lymphocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood (PB) were performed by flow cytometry.


Results: All the patients fulfilled the clinical working definition for CVID and showed decreased serum IgG and IgA at diagnosis. Over two-thirds of the patients had decreased memory B cell percentages. However, the remaining patients exhibited other quantitative B cell defects in PB. Evaluation of vaccination responses was only found in 13 records and 69% were not responsive. None of the patients were subjected to vaccination studies to both, T-cell dependent and independent antigens. The two required tests to evaluate T cell responses were performed in 84.2% of the patients and reported normal. Without the support of third-party payers, only 34.2% of our patients would have completed the required evaluations.


Conclusions: Further efforts are needed to speed up CVID diagnosis in low-resourced settings, increasing the availability of the required resources and optimizing the healthcare supply chain.

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