Effects of the affinity to the Mediterranean diet pattern together with breastfeeding on the incidence of childhood asthma and other inflammatory and recurrent diseases

Main Article Content

Fernando M. Calatayud-Sáez https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1205-5725
Blanca Calatayud
Monica Luque
Ana Calatayud
JG Gallego
Francisco Rivas-Ruiz

Keywords

childhood asthma, dietary awareness, dietary intervention, inflammatory disease, the Mediterranean diet

Abstract

Introduction There is an increasing amount of data relating the dietetic pattern to health variables, although data concerning the child population are scarce. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of affinity to the Traditional Mediterranean Diet (TMD) pattern, together with breastfeeding, on the incidence of childhood asthma and other inflammatory and recurrent diseases (IRD) in children under 2 years of age.


Methods Single-group intervention study evaluating differences in results according to degree of adherence to TMD recommendations. According to their adhesion to the TMD-Breastfed Test, patients were classified into two groups: Group 1 (with greater adherence) and Group 2 (with less adherence). The incidence of childhood asthma and IRD was evaluated and compared with both groups.


Results The score of the TMD-Breastfed Test was optimal in Group 1 and good in Group 2. It shows a marked reduction in both consultation groups “on request” compared with “planned,” with low morbidity and low use of antibiotics. The incidence of infectious diseases and recurrent bacterial complications shows a clinically relevant difference between both groups. The incidence of childhood asthma was greater and statistically significant in Group 2, with less adherence to breastfeeding.


Conclusions In these cohorts of breastfed patients with good adherence to TMD patterns, there was evidence of a low incidence of childhood asthma and the IRD, more pronounced in the highest adherence Group 1. Some non-TMD foods have been linked to the occurrence of childhood asthma and IRD, as their dietary limitations have contributed to decreasing morbidity.

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