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adalimumab, etanercept, immunosuppressive drugs, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, monoclonal antibodies, pneumococcal vaccine
Introduction: Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common rheumatological disease of childhood. The therapy with tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors (TNFi) in JIA patients has demonstrated efficacy and safety. The most reported adverse event is the high susceptibility to infections. Preventive vaccination helps to decrease these risks. The information on response to vaccines in JIA patients having treatment with anti-TNF is limited.
Objectives: To evaluate the response to pneumococcal vaccine in JIA patients undergoing treatment with mAb.
Materials and methods: Analytical observational mixed cohort study. Data obtained from the clinical records of an immunorheumatology polyclinic of a metropolitan hospital in Santiago (Chile). Treatments, pneumococcal vaccine schedules, immunological laboratory, and measurement of specific antibodies against 10 pneumococcal serotypes were recorded.
Results: Nineteen patients were included; average age was 13.8 years; and average evolution time of the disease was 46.2 months. Adalimumab (Humira®) was indicated in case of 13 patients (68.4%) and etanercept (Enbrel®) to 6 (31.5%). The most indicated scheme was a dose of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) followed at 8 weeks by a dose of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) in nine (47.3%) patients. Seventeen (89.4%) patients were on immunosuppressive treatment at the time of vaccination. Only one patient did not meet the criteria for response to vaccine.
Conclusions: The pneumococcal vaccine induces protective levels of serum antibodies in JIA patients undergoing TNFi treatment. The vaccination schedule and the lymphocyte count could influence the response capacity.
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