A novel homozygous RAG1 mutation is associated with severe combined immunodeficiency and neurological presentations

Main Article Content

Melika Shafeghat
Hossein Esmaeilzadeh
Mona Sadeghalvad
Elham Rayzan
Samaneh Zoghi
Sepideh Shahkarami
Raul Jimenez Heredia
Ana Krolo
Kaan Boztug
Nima Rezaei

Keywords

Severe combined immunodeficiency, SCID, Recombination Activating Gene, RAG1, targeted sequencing, NGS.

Abstract

Introduction and objectives: Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is a subset of primary immunodeficiency diseases caused by a hereditary deficiency of the adaptive immune system. Mutation in recombination activating gene (RAG) is known as the underlying genetic cause of SCID. RAG protein plays a pivotal role in V(D)J recombination which is the main process to assemble lymphocyte antigen receptors during T- and B-cell development. The patients are characterized by recurrent infections, failure to thrive, chronic diarrhea, and fever, in early infancy. Herein, we present a case of SCID with rare neurological manifestations affected by a mutation in RAG1.
Patients and methods: The patient was a 15-month-old infant born to a consanguineous family. She was presented with neurological abnormalities including facial nerve palsy, seizure, and decreased consciousness. Next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based primary immunodeficiency disease (PID)-gene panel screen and Sanger sequencing were performed to identify the genetic mutation.
Results: We found a novel homozygous missense mutation in RAG1, c.1210C>T,p.Arg404Trp, which was predicted to be deleterious (combined annotation dependent depletion, CADD score of 27.4). Both parents were heterozygous carriers for this mutation. According to her laboratory data, both T cell and B cell numbers were decreased and the patient was diagnosed as RAG1- SCID.
Conclusions: SCID is a pediatric emergency with a variety of manifestations in infants. Therefore, accurate diagnosis importantly in the case of rare manifestations must be considered in these patients. Our findings point toward the importance of genetic assessment for early diagnosis and timely treatment of this disorder.

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