Food-induced anaphylaxis in children up to 3-years-old— preliminary study

Main Article Content

Julia Gawryjołek
Aneta Krogulska

Keywords

allergen; allergy; anaphylaxis; atopy; children; cow’s milk; epinephrine; food; infants; specific IgE

Abstract

Introduction and objectives: The aim of the study was to determine the frequency of food-induced anaphylaxis, analyze the symptoms, and the trigger factors in the group of the youngest children. The additional aim of the study is to estimate the frequency of anaphylaxis episodes in the population of children in the Kuyavian–Pomeranian Voivodeship.
Methods: Retrospective analysis of medical records of 29 children aged 0–3 years that presented symptoms of food-induced anaphylaxis. Medical charts were reviewed using a collection of documents with the clinical data.
Results: The frequency of anaphylaxis was determined to be 0.3% of all hospitalized children aged 0–3 years and 1.9% of children suspected of food allergy. The mean age of an anaphylactic reaction was 12 ± 9 months. The most common symptom was mild-moderate urticaria. The respiratory symptoms were significantly more prevalent in toddlers than in infants (p = 0.148). Cardiac symptoms occurred only in the infant group, that is, in two (11%) infants. As a possible cause of the symptoms, in 18 (62%) cases, parents most often indicated the consumption of milk or milk-rice porridge. Anaphylaxis as the first manifestation of food-allergy was significantly more prevalent in infants than in older children (p = 0.0002).
Conclusions: The incidence of anaphylactic reactions rated at 0.3% of all children hospitalized at this age. The most common symptoms of anaphylactic reaction were skin lesions. The primary cause of allergic reactions was cow’s milk after first exposure at home. Anaphylaxis has different patterns of symptoms depending on the age of the child.

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