Oral food challenge in IgE mediated food allergy in eastern Mediterranean children

Main Article Content

Hilal Unsal
Gokce Ozyilmaz Bozat
Melike Ocak
Aysegul Akarsu
Umit Murat Sahiner
Ozge Soyer
Bülent Enis Şekerel

Keywords

Anaphylaxis, children, food allergy, IgE, oral food challenge, positive reaction

Abstract

Background: The oral food challenge (OFC) in IgE mediated food allergy causes anxiety both in parents and in patients due to its inherent risks.
Objective: Documentation of the rate, spectrum, and predictors of positive reactions is instructive.
Methods: Children, who underwent OFC between January 1, 2017 and December 31, 2019 were analyzed.
Results: A total of 1361 OFCs in 613 cases were reviewed. Most of them were performed in preschool children (≤2 years 50%) and 55% of them had more than one OFC. Mainly consid-ered food groups were cow’s milk (31.8%), hen’s egg (28.5%), tree nuts (20%), legumes (7%), seeds (4.9%), and wheat (2.7%). The overall OFC positivity was 9.6%, whereas 6.7% with cow’s milk, 4.9% with hen’s egg, 16.1% with tree nuts, 21.6% with wheat, and 32.8% with seeds. The severity scoring revealed grade I (24.4%), II (45.8%), and III (29.7%) reactions. Fifty (38%) cases required epinephrine and four cases required hospitalization. OFCs with sesame seeds (odds ratio [OR]: 7.747, [confidence interval (CI) 95%: 4.03–14.90]), wheat (OR: 3.80, [CI: 1.64–8.84]), and tree nuts (OR: 2.78, [CI: 1.83–4.23]) predicted a positive OFC while a concomitant asthma (OR: 3.61 [CI: 1.27–10.28]) was more likely to elicit anaphylaxis.
Conclusion: In OFC practice, priority is given to basic nutritional sources and the most frequent food allergens, where preschool children with multiple sensitizations are the primary subjects. Increased risks of positive reactions with sesame, tree nut, and wheat and increased risk of anaphylaxis with concomitant asthma should be considered while performing OFC.

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