Effect of metformin on gut microbiota imbalance in patients with T2DM, and the value of probiotic supplementation

Main Article Content

Lu Li
Yanli Chen
Zhipeng Tang
Yan You
Yang Guo
Yong Liao

Keywords

gut microbiota, inflammatory factors, insulin resistance, metformin, probiotics, type 2 diabetes

Abstract

Purpose: To investigate the effect of metformin on gut microbiota imbalance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and the value of probiotic supplementation.


Methods: A total of 84 newly diagnosed T2DM patients were randomly divided into probiotics group, metformin group, and control group, with 28 patients in each group. The blood glucose control, islet function, gut microbiota, and inflammatory factors were compared between three groups.


Results: After 3 months of treatment, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h postprandial plasma glucose (2-h PG), and glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) were evidently decreased in both probiotics and metformin groups (P < 0.05) and were lower than that in the control group prior to treatment. Besides, FPG, 2-h PG, and HbA1c were lower in the metformin group than that in the control group. FPG, 2-h PG, and HbA1c were further lower in the probiotic group than in the metformin group (P < 0.05). Fasting insulin (FINS) and islet β cell (HOMA-β) -function were dramatically increased in the same group (P < 0.05), while insulin-resistant islet β cells (HOMA-IR) were significantly lower in the same group (P < 0.05); FINS and HOMA-β were significantly higher, while HOMA-IR was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in both groups than in the control group prior to treatment. HOMA-IR was also lower in the probiotic group than in the metformin group after treatment (P < 0.05); the number of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria increased (P < 0.05) in both probiotic and metformin groups than in the control group prior to treatment, and the number of Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococcus was lower in the control group prior to treatment (P < 0.05). In addition, the number of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria was higher and the number of enterobacteria and enterococci was lower in the probiotic group than that in the metformin group after treatment, and the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were lower in both probiotic and metformin groups (P < 0.05). The serum LPS, IL-6, and CRP levels were lower in both probiotic and metformin groups, compared to the control group prior to the treatment (P < 0.05).


Conclusion: Metformin while treating T2DM assists in improving the imbalance of gut microbiota.

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