Frequency of Euroglyphus maynei sensitization in respiratory allergies: a real-life study with bioinformatic analysis and geographical exploration of allergen prevalence

Main Article Content

Stefano Palazzo
Alessandro Cinquantasei
Concetta De Chirico
Marco Zurlo
Vincenzo Aresta
Nada Chaoul
Marcello Albanesi


Dermatophagoidinae, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, Euroglyphus maynei, house dust mite, phyroglyphidae, pyroglyphinae


Background: Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae belong to the family Pyroglyphidae (subfamily: “Dermatophagoidinae”) and have the respective allergenic proteins of Der p1, Der p2, and Der p23 and Der f1 and Der f2. Euroglyphus maynei, belongs to the family Pyroglyphidae (subfamily: “Pyroglyphinae”) and its main allergenic protein is Eur m1, a source of sensitization. Sensitization to D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae is assessed through skin tests, while sensitization to E. maynei is assessed less frequently.

Objective: This experimental work aims to analyze the prevalence of sensitization to E. maynei in patients with respiratory allergies treated at M. Albanesi Allergy and Immunology Unit in Bari, Italy, and the sequence homology of major allergenic proteins of E. maynei with D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus was analyzed.

Methods: In this real-life study, 65 patients were enrolled. In particular, patients with respiratory allergy were subjected to skin prick tests for common respiratory allergens, including Euroglyphus maynei. The sequence homology analysis was performed between the major allergenic proteins of E. maynei and those of D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae.

Results: Sensitization to E. maynei accounts for 41.5% of patients. All patients with E. maynei sensitization had concomitant sensitization to D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus. The analysis of sequence homology of Der p1 and Der f1 proteins with the sequence of Eur m1 protein demonstrated an identity of 84.4% and 86%, respectively.

Conclusions: Nearly 50% of house dust mites-sensitized patients have a concomitant sensitization to E. maynei. The cross-sensitization could be due to Der f1, Der p1, and Eur m1 similarity.

Abstract 101 | PDF Downloads 118 HTML Downloads 3 XML Downloads 5


1. Shafique RH, Klimov PB, Inam M, Chaudhary FR, BM OConnor. Group 1 allergen genes in two species of house dust mites, Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus (Acari: Pyroglyphidae): Direct sequencing, characterization and polymorphism. PLoS One. 2014;9(12):e114636. 10.1371/journal.pone.0114636

2. Yin SC, Liao EC, Ye CX, Chang CY, Tsai JJ. Effect of mite allergenic components on innate immune response: Synergy of protease (groups 1 & 3) and non-protease (groups 2 & 7) allergens. Immunobiology. 2018;223(6–7):443–8. 10.1016/j.imbio.2017.10.032

3. Miller JD. The role of dust mites in allergy. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2019;57(3):312–29. 10.1007/s12016-018-8693-0

4. Romero-Sanchez L, Otero A, Gonzalez-Rivas M, Lojo S, Gonzalez-Quintela A, Vidal C. Der p 23 sensitisation in patients with house dust mite respiratory allergy. Eur Ann Allergy Clin Immunol. 2024 Mar;56(2):79–85. 10.23822/EurAnnACI.1764-1489.264

5. Colloff MJ. A review of the biology and allergenicity of the house-dust mite Euroglyphus maynei (Acari: Pyroglyphidae). Exp Appl Acarol. 1991;11(2–3):177–98. 10.1007/BF01246090

6. Morgan MS, Vyszenski-Moher DL, Arlian LG. Population growth and allergen content of cultured Euroglyphus maynei house dust mites. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2015;166(4):267–72. 10.1159/000381854

7. Cui Y, Zhou P, Peng J, Peng M, Zhou Y, Lin Y, et al. Cloning, sequence analysis, and expression of cDNA coding for the major house dust mite allergen, Der f 1, in Escherichia coli. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2008;41(5):380–8. 10.1590/S0100-879X2008000500006

8. Chruszcz M, Kapingidza AB, Dolamore C, Kowal K. A robust method for the estimation and visualization of IgE cross--reactivity likelihood between allergens belonging to the same protein family. PLoS One. 2018;13(11):e0208276. 10.1371/journal.pone.0208276

9. Foti C, Fanelli M, Mastrandrea V, Buquicchio R, Cassano N, Conserva A, et al. Risk factors for sensitization to Anisaki S simplex: A multivariate statistical evaluation. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2006;19(4):847–51. 10.1177/039463200601900414

10. Kemp SF, Lockey RF, Fernandez-Caldas E, Arlian LG. Skin test and cross-reactivity studies with Euroglyphus maynei and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. Clin Exp Allergy. 1997;27(8):893–7. 10.1111/j.1365-2222.1997.tb01229.x 10.1046/j.1365-2222.1997.860897.x

11. van Hage-Hamsten M, Johansson SG. Clinical significance and allergenic cross-reactivity of Euroglyphus maynei and other nonpyroglyphid and pyroglyphid mites. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1989;83(3):581–9. 10.1016/0091-6749(89)90069-9

12. Arlian LG, Rapp CM, Fernandez-Caldas E. Allergenicity of Euroglyphus maynei and its cross-reactivity with Dermato-phagoides species. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1993;91(5): 1051–8. 10.1016/0091-6749(93)90219-6

13. Mary CL, Lopez-Malpica F, Diaz AM. Analysis of cross--reactivity between group 1 allergens from mites. P R Health Sci J. 2008;27(2):163–70.

14. Albanesi M, Nico A, Sinisi A, Giliberti L, Rossi MP, Rossini M, et al. A 13-year real-life study on efficacy, safety and biological effects of Vespula venom immunotherapy. Clin Mol Allergy. 2018;16:2. 10.1186/s12948-017-0079-y

15. Al-Tamemi SH, Al-Shidhani AN, Al-Abri RK, Jothi B, Al-Rawas OA, Al-Riyami BM. The pattern of sensitisation to inhalant allergens in Omani patients with asthma, allergic rhinitis and rhinoconjunctivitis. Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J. 2008;8(3):319–24.