Clinical and serological characteristics of patients allergic to LTP

Main Article Content

Juan Carlos Miralles-Lopez
Antonio Carbonell-Martínez
Soledad Zamarro-Parra
Cristina Navarro-Garrido
Ana Isabel Escudero-Pastor
Muna Boulaich
Sol Sanromán-Sirvent
Yulia Petryk-Petryk
Maria Dolores Ladrón-de-Guevara
Virginia Pérez-Fernández

Keywords

Food allergy, LTP allergy, Clinical features, Skin prick test, Specific IgE

Abstract

Background: Allergy to lipid transfer proteins (LPT) is common in Mediterranean Europe, and it causes severe reactions in patients and affects multiple foods, impairing the quality of life.


Objective: This study aimed to describe the clinical and sensitization profile of patients with LTP syndrome and to determine a clinical pattern of severity. Molecular diagnosis is shown in a broad population through microarrays.


Material and Methods: This study was performed at the LTP Allergy Consultation of the Reina Sofia Hospital in Murcia, Spain. We analyzed the patients’ characteristics, reactions, cofactors, food implicated, quality of life, skin prick test to food and aeroallergens, and serologic parameters, such as total immunoglobulin E, peach LTP (Pru p 3 IgE) and immunoglobulin G4, and microarray Immuno Solid-phase Allergen Chip (ISAC). We related the severity of the reactions with other variables.


Results: We presented a series of 236 patients diagnosed with LTP allergy, 54.66% suffering from anaphylaxis, 36.02% from urticaria angioedema, and 9.32% from oral allergy syndrome. The most frequently implicated food was peach, producing symptoms in 70% of patients, followed by walnut in 55%, peanut in 45%, hazelnut in 44%, and apple in 38% patients. Regarding the food that provoked anaphylaxis, walnut was the most frequent instigator, along with peach, peanut, hazelnut, almond, sunflower seed, and apple. According to the severity of LPT reaction, we did not discover significant differences in gender, age, food group involved, and serologic parameters. We found differences in the presence of cofactors, with 48.84% of cofactors in patients with anaphylaxis, compared to 27.1% in patients without anaphylaxis and in family allergy background (P < 0.0001).


Conclusion: In our series of patients, 54% presented anaphylaxis, and the foods that most frequently produced symptoms were peaches, apples, and nuts. Cofactors and family allergy backgrounds were associated with the severity of LPT reaction.

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